New nonfiction you’ll want 3rd-5th grade to read

Some new extremely insightful picture book biographies that will appeal to grades 3-5. (BTW – I value this type of picture book as much as I do children in these grades reading chapter books. There’s so much critical thinking that can be done with these texts.) Book talk these books and then display in the classroom library. I think if we are excited enough–students will grab them off the shelf! These would also make for great reading aloud with student-led discussions and many could be used as part of a Next Generation Science Standards unit of study. If students read them independently, there’s lots of room for written response to higher level thinking questions especially related to perseverance in the face of obstacles.

I’ve linked the reviews I’ve written on Goodreads which include suggestions for instruction and higher level thinking questions.

Notice too – lots of titles about STRONG WOMEN!

MY FAVORITE of all of these is Solving the Puzzle Under the Sea by Robert Burleigh.  tharp

Fearless Flyer: Ruth Law and Her Flying Machine by Heather Lang

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Tiny Stitches: The Life of Medical Pioneer Vivien Thomas by Gwendolyn Hooks – The story of Vivien Thomas – an African American who made significant strides in medical technique but was not recognized for this because of racism.

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Mountain Chef by Annette Bay Pimental about a Chinese American trail chef who played a major role in persuading key players to fund the National Park Service. Humorous and poignant.

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Miss Mary Reporting: The True Story of Sportswriter Mary Garber by Sue Macy about another woman immersed in a male dominated field who persists and has a real impact.

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I Dissent: Ruth Bader Ginsburg Makes Her Mark by Debbie Levy. LOVED the vocabulary in this book.

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Ira’s Shakespeare Dream by Glenda Armand about Ira Aldridge, an African American, who became a leading actor in Shakespeare plays in the 19th century. Very interesting!

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Hope this helps. If your students write responses to any of these books, I’d love to read their writing!!!!

S

 

Photos from THIEVES lessons with some reminders

Just a few photos from THIEVES lessons as reminders of what we need to think about when introducing this strategy to students. I taught two demo lessons with third and fourth grade students. This was the first time they’d used the strategy and it seemed to take longer than I expected, but when I thought about it – it took the amount of time it should. The students just need more opportunities to work with and think about the use of this activity in helping them make informed predictions. The good thing was that I got a boisterous thumbs up at the end of each lesson when I asked students, “Do you feel like you can make a strong, informed prediction about what you will be learning from this text?”

Here are a few tips:

  1. I introduced Tier Two vocabulary at the beginning of the lesson – key tier two vocabulary that could be used to discuss what we were learning while previewing the text. img_7284
  2. I asked the students to quickly sketch their connection to the word “thief” and then I introduced the mnemonic THIEVES on an anchor chart. I explained by saying, “Thieves want to get ahead. They feel like they need something that they don’t have. That’s what we can do when we preview a text. We can get ahead of the author by thinking carefully about text features like the titles, the headings…” img_2374img_2375
  3. I modeled thinking aloud & writing notes about the title of the article the students were reading. img_2380Looking back, I wish I had hammered more heavily “There has to be proof in the text feature that you are looking at to support your prediction about what you will be learning.”  I also modeled making connections between text features. You can see the arrow I drew from the title to my notes about the photo in the image below. scan-10
  4. I gradually released responsibility to students to use THIEVES and take notes. This was a very gradual release. As a group, they decided what text feature to look at next, I got them started on thinking about the feature, then they continued by thinking and jotting notes. img_2391
  5. I conferred with individual students. You’ll notice in the notes above, there is a misconception about who was being interviewed by the kid reporters. I prompted the students with, “Show me the evidence in the photo that the kid is interviewing a parent?”
  6. Using our notes, I modeled with a student partner (at the front of the classroom) how to talk about what they learned from previewing the text and what they were predicting the text would be about. I also referred to the vocabulary I’d introduced and used this in my discussion with the partner.  Then I asked partners to turn and talk with each other–referring to their notes. I did this multiple times during the lesson.
  7. I provided sentence frames to support their conversations. img_2393The sentence stems were written on the dry erase board at the front of the classroom. I predict that this text will be about… I also think that… I want to add that…

BTW – we only got to about three features during the lesson. I’m letting go of previewing a ton of features before reading. I think students can make pretty good predictions if they at least look thoughtfully at the title, headings, photos and captions.

During the next lesson, I would ask the students to review their predictions OR we’d write a strong prediction together and then I’d ask them to read the whole article. I’d follow by asking them to reread the article and mark details in the text that support their prediction. (At some point we would need to get into how sometimes we have to adjust our predictions once we start reading and learning more.) Over time, they would not need to take heavy notes when they preview a text–this could happen easily for a few minutes before we read with a different purpose or different objective in mind.

Hope this helps.

Sunday

Are we reading aloud enough nonfiction in PreK-1st?

Beginning in the primary grades, our students need to hear us read aloud A LOT of nonfiction. This helps them develop an ear for what it should sound like when they read independently and when they write nonfiction as well. Below are some new titles students will enjoy hearing read aloud – again and again. I’ve included reviews, suggestions for classroom use and Next Generation Science Standard connections. If you visit my Goodreads page, I have a shelf of nonfiction read alouds for PreK-2nd!

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Good Trick, Walking Stick by Bestor

Engaging introduction to the walking stick with a rhyming, reoccurring phrase, “Good trick, walking stick!” The main text could easily be read aloud to preK-1st grade students and then an additional read might include information provided in the captions. Onomatopoeia (“drop, plop, drop,” “wiggle wiggle wiggle Pop!”) in different color, larger fonts beg children to engage in acting out or contributing sound during an interactive read aloud. Well written with clear illustrations to support the text. Might go well with NGSS  K-ESS3 Earth & Human Activity and 1-LS1- From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes.

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At the Marsh in the Meadow by Mebane

LOVED THIS!!!! Written in a rhythmic cumulative style like “The House that Jack Built.” The author starts with the marsh and the mucky mud, the reeds and the algae and then begins to build the food chain – mayflies eat the algae, water spiders eat the mayflies and so forth. The repetitive, rhythmic verse lends itself to young children jumping in to repeat phrases and act out some of the verbs – nibble, grasp, slurp, etc. The illustrations are vibrant, clearly support the text and worthy of looking at carefully before, during, and after reading aloud. Great for PreK-Kinder studying animals and food chains. Might go really well with the NGSS K-LS1-1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes.

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Ouch! Moments: When Words Are Used in Hurtful Ways by Genhart

Not just any book about bullying. The author targets “microagressions”—defined in the author’s note as “brief exchanges where an indignity, insult, or slight is expressed.” Well written. The content is clear, to the point with a kind (not patronizing) voice. Concrete examples of what children say when they are being microaggressive – “he’s so gay,” “reading is for nerds,” “he throws like a girl” and concrete kid-manageable suggestions for what to do in response. More importantly, the author addresses the idea that it’s hard to stand up to microaggressions and that “doing the right thing takes courage and it takes practice.” This would make a great read aloud as well as an opportunity for young students to turn and talk in small groups. This might be used at the beginning of the school year to launch problem-solving discussions, etc. At the end of the book, there is a helpful essay by Kevin Nadal, a psychology and professor, with more detailed information about what microaggressions are and what we can do if our child is the target or if our child is the enactor.

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Every Breath We Take: A Book About Air by Ajmera & Browning

Lots of potential for use in the classroom as part of a rigorous unit of study. Read aloud to PreK-1st grade students and pose questions for small groups to discuss. Let a small group of second grade students read to each other and then discuss, “Why is clean air important? What in the text makes you think so? What is your response to that?” Read aloud to 3rd-4th grade students to launch an inquiry—use information on specific pages in the book (including the last two that have more details) to help students generate their own questions. Use as a mentor for writing, for thinking about author’s point of view and how to convey that in their own writing. Lots, lots, lots of ways to use. Would go well with NGSS K-ESS2 Earth’s Systems-in particular ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems.

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Flying Frogs and Walking Fish by Jenkins & Page

Great for PreK-1 interactive read aloud that expands students’ vocabulary. Animals that “walk” also tiptoe, waddle, stroll, and march. Animals that “jump” also pounce, spring, rocket, bound straight up, vault, flutter, burst. And more. So much potential fun and learning. The kind of book kids will want to hear read again and again. For older students, this book might launch further research or serve as a mentor text for layout and design as well as focused content. Would work well as part of an integrated unit for NGSS 1-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes, specifically LS1.A Structure and Function.

Hope this helps.

S

Start the year with HIP, TELL, THIEVES or…

A student glancing at a text and predicting “It is about dolphins” is just not good enough. This surface level prediction will not help them as much as an informed prediction. This is what I would want students to say in a prediction: “I think this book is going to be about the dolphins that live in Shark Bay which is off the coast of Australia. I know that because I thought about the title and the map that was on one of the first pages. I also think it’s going to tell me about families of dolphins and different types of dolphins because the captions and photographs I previewed included details about…” This is the kind of prediction that will move students forward in comprehending the text.

How do we help students do this?

Model using a mnemonic like HIP, TELL, or THIEVES and “think aloud” about what your predictions are because of what you learned while previewing. As I do this, I post the text I’m previewing – using a document camera or a Smart board. As I think aloud, I point to the features I’m examining as a visual scaffold for students. I’ve also modeled taking notes about what I’m learning during the preview – just to reinforce thinking carefully about what I’m learning during the preview.

Below are sample anchor charts.

HIP

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For more information about THIEVES see two previous blog entries I’ve written. Links are below. The information in these blog entries is relevant to what you might do with HIP and TELL as well.

Hope this helps.

Sunday

Dear Accelerated Reader, It’s not fair.

Dear Accelerated Reader,

It’s not fair that you assign fewer points to nonfiction than fiction. For example, students who read The Hunger Games (GL 5.3) get a whopping 15 points, but students who read Titanic: Voices from the Disaster by Hopkinson (GL 7.4) receive a measly 7 points. Yes, Titanic is only 289 pages compared to The Hunger Games at 384 pages, BUT Titanic is a multi-layered, cognitively demanding text with intertwined narratives about multiple passengers, the sinking of the ship and the rescue as well as many many non-narrative sidebars including explanations of the engineering of the ship, comparisons to other ships, descriptions of the lifeboats, etc. and, on top of all of that, dozens of primary sources to interpret. It is also written at a higher Lexile level probably due to a lot of domain specific, challening vocabulary. And yet – you award Titanic LESS THAN HALF the points that students get for reading The Hunger Games.

Grrrr….

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More examples? Marching for Freedom: Walk Together, Children, and Don’t You Grow Weary by Partridge (GL 6.6), winner of numerous awards, tells the story of the children who marched for voting rights in the 1960’s in Selma, Alabama. It has 62 pages of text, but it has a large format so each page of text equals about two pages in a typical fiction chapter book format. It’s a complex text in that the reader has to follow multiple narratives and grapple with complex issues like racism, social activism, and perseverance. The reader also has to understand the motives and work of organizations like the Student Nonviolence Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). And yet – you award it only 3 points!

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On the science end of the reading spectrum, check out The Hive Detectives: Chronicle of a Honey Bee Catastrophe (GL 7.5). Only 59 pages but again with a large page format with twice the text on each page of what is in a typical chapter book. The author chronicles, describes, and explains colony collapse disorder. This is not a book for spring chicken readers. It’s difficult and demanding and yet amazingly rewarding as the reader walks away with knowledge critical to understanding an important issue in our world. Again-at a higher Lexile than The Hunger Games. And yet – you award it only 2 points!!!

UGH!!! Do you hear me moaning???

AR, I will give you a small, very small, bit of credit. Picture books geared towards the primary grades typically get .5 AR points regardless of whether the book is fiction or nonfiction. Just a little bit of credit.

Back to my point. I don’t know how you, Accelerated Reader, are assigning points, but I’m begging you to rejudge books like these and GIVE MORE POINTS!!! After all, we do want our students to read more nonfiction, correct? And IF we have to assign points (which I’m not a big fan of anyway), then let’s use this as an incentive to read more nonfiction, too? RIGHT?????

Teachers. AR may continue to fail us. In that case, would you double the points offered for a nonfiction book? Or maybe require so many books read in a particular genre versus assigning points? And if you already do, HOORAY!!! Thank you!!!!

Hope this helps.

Sunday

Sample Lesson – Close reading with NewsELA article

Do your students need help with clearly stating a main idea? And with organization when they elaborate on that main idea? Last month I had the honor of teaching close reading of an informational article to a small group of fifth grade students for a demonstration lesson in front of 40 educators in the North Kansas City School District. With a quick assessment prior to the demo lesson, the teachers and I realized the students needed help clearly stating a main idea, elaborating further, and organizing that elaboration. Below are a few notes about the lesson I gave.

I used a NewsELA article entitled “Tortoises battle it out with Marines for the right to stay put” and I lifted this main idea from the questions for students at the end of the article: In the article, one of the author’s main ideas is that the environmentalists and the Marine Corps disagree about whether a soldier training will harm the tortoises.

Before we met, the students read the whole article.

At the beginning of the 20 minute lesson, I beefed up background knowledge by sharing two photos. On my smart phone, I showed them a map of the U.S. southwest and the location in the article – TwentyNine Palms and a photo of the Marine base. Then I asked, “What did you learn?” so I could quickly assess what they understood.

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Next I posted the main idea for all students to view and quickly defined key words – writing the definitions on the chart as we discussed their initial thoughts about this main idea. See below.

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I introduced close reading with the pasta analogy and a photograph of pasta that I’d pulled up on my smart phone.

Then we did a close reading of a three-paragraph excerpt from this article and listed key details on sticky notes. I modeled for a few sentences and then coached the students in independently reading and taking notes. I chose this excerpt (see below) because it reveals lots of details related to the main idea. During this 20 minute lesson we only read, discussed, took notes on the first two paragraphs–which detail the Marine side of the issue. The students’  teacher planned to follow up with another lesson to delve into the environmentalist side of the issue.

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Note: Because I was leading a demonstration lesson, I moved to writing – just for the purposes of teachers watching. Otherwise I would have coached the students in close reading the third paragraph and saved the writing for the Day 2 lesson.

We closed with shared writing and independent writing referring to the notes they’d taken. See the chart below. Just a note – I’d written the main idea statement prior to the lesson. Together we came up with a piece of evidence/a detail and elaborated and composed the following sentences:

The marines are trying not to harm the tortoises. They are moving the tortoises far enough away from the training that they won’t come back. This means they are trying to protect the tortoises.

And then each student chose an additional detail, turned and talked with a peer about what they were thinking about writing, and wrote a short response. (See sticky notes posted at the bottom of the chart). I leaned in and conferred with each student as they wrote.

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The students clearly needed this lesson and, if they were in my classroom, I’d follow up with a series of lessons like this with multiple articles. The 40 educators present  in this demonstration teaching lab followed up by planning in teams and teaching a very similar lesson to one student (while I observed and coached) with the NewsELA article “Tough Times for Polar Bears.” Thank you to North Kansas City Schools for supporting this kind of professional learning!

How do we know? Easy beginning of the year assessment

Here’s a quick and easy assessment for the beginning of the year–read aloud a text or provide short texts for students to read, then provide a prompt and ask them to sketch (k-1st) or write a response (2nd-8th).

You know your objectives for teaching as far as curriculum, but you also need to know what your students know how to do in relation to those objectives. If you are teaching for identifying main ideas and explaining textual evidence–what can your students already do to identify main idea and explain supporting details? If you are teaching for comparing/contrasting the overall structure of a text, what do your students already know about this? Etc.

For kindergarten-first grade – read aloud an engaging informational book like Grandma Elephant’s in Charge and then ask them to sketch and write about what they learned. See my blog analyzing kindergarten students’ written responses to this book.

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For 2nd-5th grade students – provide an article and prompt for writing in response. Recently I visited the North Kansas City schools and gave a demonstration lesson related to identifying and explaining main ideas. Before I arrived, the fifth grade teacher asked the students to read and respond to a NewsELA article entitled “8-year-old who is blind prepares for reading competition in L.A.” The prompt for the written response was “What is one main idea in this article? What in the article makes you think so?” You can phrase this in multiple ways – as additional support for students. Ideally, for 5-8th grade students, I’d prompt with “What are two or more main ideas in the text? Explain how these main ideas are supported by key details in the text.” (Note – This would not be appropriate for students reading multiple years below grade level.) If you have some inkling of the students’ reading levels, you can print this article at different Lexile levels. (Please beware when using NewsELA – see my last blog entry.)

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This article has multiple main ideas that students might notice and explain further –

  • Amare, who is blind, loves reading. (VERY SIMPLE)
  • Amare’s hard work learning to read and reading has paid off; he is going on an amazing adventure with the Braille Challenge competition.
  • The Braille Challenge inspires blind students to read and compete.
  • Children with visual impairments like Amare can excel at reading Braille.
  • Teachers of Braille are important to children with visual impairments like Amare. Without them, these children might not learn how to read or even learn.
  • Reading Braille is one way for blind children to experience the world – by reading and by traveling to competitions like the Braille Challenge.
  • Children with visual impairments experience life differently and similarly to children without visual impairments.

We used the students’ responses to help us determine what I should teach during the demonstration lesson. In the response below, notice that this student has identified multiple main ideas (“how Amare loves reading” and “how his life turned amazing” and even “he overcomes blindness”) and offered some textual evidence to support these main ideas. When I think about teaching this student, I’m planning for helping her with organization and elaboration. When I lean in to confer with her, I might even offer her more global main ideas to grapple with like how the author reveals that children with visual impairments experience life differently and similarly to children with visual impairments.

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In contrast, the student who wrote the response below has attempted to state a main idea and use quotes from the text to support this idea (strengths). The main idea is unclear, though, as is the relationship between the main idea and the quotes from the text. For this student, I might provide a clear main idea (from the list above) for him to grapple with or coach him in developing a clearer idea orally before he begins writing. In addition, I’d engage him in conversations explaining why a particular quote is relevant before he writes.

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Just looking at these two students’ responses helped me deepen my thinking about what I needed to teach as far as identifying and explaining main ideas.

Next week I’ll write about the lesson I taught after we analyzed these responses.

Hope this helps.

Sunday

 

 

NEWSELA–I like this site but beware…

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Just be careful. NEWSELA is a great site for short informational articles for students to read. The  content is usually worthy of student-led discussions and writing about in response. The beauty of NEWSELA is that the same article is available at different Lexile levels. (When you click on an article, check out the blue bar that appears on the right hand side of the screen.) So if you have students reading at a range of levels, you can access or print out the article at a level that meets their needs. My caution is that sometimes when the editors (or the algorithm) attempt to lower the Lexile level, they actually make the content harder to comprehend. They cut or revise details that might actually help a student understand the article better. This is also the case with publishers who include leveled books with their textbooks (e.g. the leveled books that come with McGraw-Hill’s Wonders).

An example – with one NEWSELA article I used recently, the editors substituted “a government group” in the lower Lexile versions for “the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service” which was in the higher Lexile versions. I thought “government group” was too vague given that the article also discussed the Marines and an environmentalist group’s upholding of a federal environmental law. Students might be confused. So when I downloaded the article, I reinserted the proper noun. So my advice is to watch out for vague language and important details that need to be included.

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TIP. When I use NEWSELA articles, I read the version of the article at the highest Lexile level first. Then I quickly read the lower Lexile versions I want to use to make sure important details I just learned from the higher level version are still in the lower versions. Not all details are important. Just keep your readers in mind. Then I either edit OR I make sure to highlight details that were in the higher version when I introduce the lower version(s) of the article to students. 

Hope this helps.

S

Critical Thinking Across Multiple Texts – Choosing Texts Part 2

I’m hooked on the art of locating and layering texts for students to read and think across. In my last entry, I described a series of lessons where middle school students used an evolving definition of “honorable” to think critically about the role of medieval age warriors and modern warriors. We chose text excerpts and video clips from multiple sources, but in a very purposeful way.

Honorable anchor chart

When I choose multiple texts for close reading, I like to select texts that build on each other. I want students–when they go to read a second or third text–to say, “Oh, I recognize some of the information in this text from the last text I read…” or “Wait, this is new information…this expands my understanding.”

Below are the excerpts I selected on “knights” from a few library books I found and from sources on the Internet. Notice how in Text 1, the author provides some basic information about the young nobleman’s being a page, a squire and then a knight. In Text 2, the author provides more detail than the first. Thus the student can take what they learned from Text 1 and add to their learning with Text 2. This is an easy exercise to engage students in and reveal the power of reading across texts. I chose Text 3 (an excerpt from a longer book) because there is detailed content on particular aspects of the squire’s training – serious training and bodybuilding. The content in Text 3 expands the reader’s understanding of the squire’s training. Text 4 (a short video) extends the student’s understanding about the skill required to be a knight even further. By engaging in close reading and thinking across these four texts, the student can develop some depth in their understanding of an ability or an achievement of the knight that might be considered honorable. (FYI – The knights were not always honorable. I also located texts that described the Code of Chivalry and how the knights sometimes did not follow this Code.)

TEXT 1

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100 Things you should know about knights and castles (Walker, 2001, p. 16)

It took about 14 years of training to become a knight. The son of a noble joined a lord’s household at age seven. He learned how to ride, to shoot a bow and arrow, and how to behave in front of nobles. He then became a squire, where he learned how to fight with a sword, and he looked after his master’s armor and weapons. If he was successful, he became a knight at 21.

Text 2

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Knights: Fearsome Fighters (Hanel, 2008, p. 20-21)

A knight’s training started when he was young and lasted several years. Around the age of seven, a boy born of a knight or other high-class parents was sent away to live with his father’s master or a powerful relative. The young knight-in-training was considered a page. He ran errands, served food, and performed other duties for the nobleman and the woman of the manor. In exchange for his services, the page received a good education. He learned to read and write, play music, and observe good manners. His preparations for later fighting also started, as he was taught how to care for the horses and learned a little about weaponry and fighting techniques by watching others or practicing with supervision.

Around the age of 13, the page became a squire. Squires studied directly with a knight and received more rigorous training for knighthood. They learned how to use weapons and participated in mock battles. At the same time, they continued their servitude, helping the knight in various tasks, including cleaning weapons and taking care of the horses. Sometimes a squire rode into battle to attend and observe his knight.

Text 3

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Excerpt from Medieval Lives: Knight (Butterfield, 2009, p. 14-15)

Note: This book is written about a fictional English knight and in the present tense.

Becoming a Squire

When he is 14, the page’s parents watch their son receive a simple sword in a ceremony confirming him as a squire. He swears an oath of fealty, or loyalty, to the knight in whose household he lives. He is now expected to be that knight’s personal servant in battle.

Serious Training

The young knight-to-be now begins his training in earnest. He learns to aim his lance at the quintain, a wooden arm with a shield on one side and a heavy sack on the other. If he fails to hit the shield full-on, the sack will swing around and knock him on the back of the head! He also practices aiming his lance through metal rings hanging in trees.

He learns to ride superbly, controlling the horse with his knees and feet so that his hands are free to hold weapons. His saddle is shaped high in the front and back to help him stay on. He trains with two other squires and sometimes they have mock sword fights using wooden swords.

Bodybuilding

The squire works at building up his strength so he will be strong enough to wear heavy chain-mail armor and mount a horse while wearing it. He tries to make himself stronger using a well-known squire’s trick. He sews dirt into the pockets and hems of his clothing to make it heavier. He becomes good at vaulting over his horse while wearing chain mail, and he rides hard while hunting and leaping over ditches and hedges. He and the other squires are competitive and try to outdo each other in their knightly skills.

Text 4

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Short video at http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/chivalry/ entitled “A Passion for Swords, Daggers and Medieval Manuscripts” about a manuscript called “The Flower of Battle” (written around 1410) that describes battle techniques of knights. There are images from the book (so primary source) as well as a trained Medieval martial arts master as the narrator. Students can learn the following:

  • There were specific techniques for combat
  • These techniques required skill and quick thinking
  • If you could not harm your opponent in three moves or less, you are probably equally matched and should back off.

Students can draw the following conclusions from the video clip:

  • Knights were skillful
  • Training to be a knight required critical thinking and a lot of practice
  • Training required a strong body and a strong mind

Yes. It takes time to build a text set like this, but it’s worth the reward when students begin to make clear connections between and across texts. Because I do this frequently, the process has become much faster and this is a text set I can use again and again. I believe that later when students go to do research on their own, having experiences with teacher-developed text sets will help them in determining which texts to use and in thinking across texts as well. A few tips for locating and layering texts:

  • have a clear focus for the texts (like the “stages of knighthood”)
  • collect a stack of library or other resource books, skim and scan for excerpts
  • google topics (but make sure whatever you choose is a credible source)
  • integrate video clips (museum sites are a good source for this) & primary sources
  • as you choose texts, think about how they build or expand content in the previous text
  • select SHORT texts…students have trouble retaining information and thinking about multiple texts when they are too long…maybe build towards longer excerpts later on…
  • be flexible – you may not find the “perfect” (in your mind) set, but students will surprise you in what they notice as they begin to think across texts that have been chosen with at least some thought.

Hope this helps.

Sunday